Recognizing and Treating Succulent Rot. Succulent plants are very popular indoor plants. They can survive with little water and come in many shapes and textures. Even these tough plants can get diseases that destroy their stems and roots quickly.
To save infected plants, it’s important to catch rot early and take prompt action. This complete guide teaches you how to identify rot, check for root damage, treat it, and prevent it. By using proper methods, you can often heal rot and bring succulents back to health.
Succulent rot is one of the most common problems afflicting succulent plants. Overwatering often causes fungal pathogens to infect plant stems and roots. The fungi release enzymes that break down the plant’s cells, causing tissue to turn mushy and black or brown.
Rot can happen slowly over time with repeated overwatering. But even one instance of leaving succulents sitting in wet soil can cause rot to develop quickly. It is important to learn how to spot early signs of stem and root rot. Take action before it affects the whole plant.
With prompt treatment, mild cases of rot can often be reversed. And even severely rotted plants can sometimes be saved by propagating their healthy leaves and stems. This guide will cover:
Identifying the signs of rot in stems and leaves
Carefully checking roots for damage
Techniques to treat mild and advanced rot
Preventative care to avoid rot in the future
Knowing what to look for and taking immediate action at the first signs of rot gives you the best chance of saving your succulents.
Signs of Stem and Leaf Rot
Stem and leaf rot initially causes the lowest leaves to yellow, wilt, and fall off. Rot works its way up the stem, turning leaves brown or black and causing a foul, rotten odor. Look for these signs:
Black, Brown, or Yellow Leaves
The leaves lowest on the stem are usually the first affected. Their color fades to greenish-yellow before turning fully brown or black as rot takes hold. The discoloration stems from cell breakdown.
Soft, Mushy Leaves and Stems
Healthy succulent leaves and stems are firm and rigid. Rotten tissue feels soft and mushy or hollowed out when squeezed due to water saturation and damage.
The fungal pathogens releasing enzymes that break down plant tissue cause a distinct rotten smell at the base of the plant.
White Fuzz or Mold on Stems/Soil
In humid conditions, the fungi can produce visible white mycelium or mold on infected plant parts and nearby soil.
Drooping and Shriveling
The leaves begin to droop and look wrinkled or deflated when rot affects how they hold water.
These are clear above-ground signs that rot has taken hold. To assess how far rot has progressed, you need to check the roots.
Checking Roots for Rot
Gently removing the plant from its pot gives you a clear view of the root system to check for rot damage.
Remove Plant and Loose Soil
Carefully tip the pot upside down, supporting the plant so it doesn’t fall out. Gently brush off as much soil as possible to expose the roots.
Look for Brown, Mushy Roots
Healthy succulent roots are firm, white, or cream-colored. Brown, mushy roots that feel hollow and easily pull away are a sign of advanced rot.
Assess Severity of Damage
The extent of root rot determines your treatment plan. If just a few roots are affected, you may be able to save the plant by cutting away the rot. If most roots are damaged, propagation may be needed.
Checking roots before treating rot gives you important information on how far the rot has spread. Next, we’ll go over treatment methods.
Treating Mild Succulent Root Rot
If you catch rot early before roots are severely damaged, you can often reverse it with a few simple steps:
Stop Watering and Dry Out Soil
Eliminating all moisture deprives rot-causing fungi of the conditions they need to thrive.
Remove Rotten Roots and Repot
Trim off any black or brown roots with sterilized scissors or shears before repotting in a dry soil mix.
Killing remaining pathogens by drenching the roots with a fungicide containing chlorothalonil or neem oil.
Gradually Resume Watering
After several weeks of dryness to allow recovery, slowly begin watering again once new growth emerges.
Catching rot early and providing dry conditions can help mildly affected plants rebound. But advanced rot requires more intensive rehabilitation.
Rehabilitating Severely Rotted Succulents
If most roots are rotten and the stem is also damaged, propagation using healthy leaves and stems may be needed to rescue the plant:
Trim Off All Rotten Parts
Remove all visibly rotten stems, leaves, and roots until only healthy tissue remains. A sterile knife prevents spreading pathogens.
Take Stem and Leaf Cuttings
Take 3-4 inch cuttings from any undamaged stems to propagate new rosettes. Also remove healthy leaves for propagation.
Allow Cuts to Callous Before Planting
Let cut ends dry and callous over for 2-3 days before planting to prevent stem and leaf cuttings from rotting.
Root Cuttings and Leaves in Proper Mix
Plant the cuttings and leaves in a suitable propagation mix, like half potting mix and half perlite or sand.
Severely rotted plants can regenerate new root systems from their parts. Now let’s look at how to prevent succulent rot going forward.
Preventing Succulent Rot
While succulents are adapted to tolerate drought, overwatering encourages fungal rot pathogens. Here are some key prevention tips:
Allow Soil to Fully Dry Before Watering
Only water again once the entire pot is bone dry. The longer the drying period between waterings, the better.
Ensure Pot Has Drainage Holes
Use containers with adequate holes to prevent waterlogged soil.
Use a Well-Draining Succulent Soil Mix
A blend of potting soil, perlite, gravel and sand maintains dryness.
Provide Sun and Air Circulation
Sunlight and airflow discourage rot by evaporating moisture quickly.
The keys are soil that drains freely and completely drying out between infrequent waterings. With proper care, most succulents can thrive rot-free.
Succulent rot is a common threat, especially for beginners who overwater. But catching it early and taking prompt action can often save infected plants.
Learn the signs of rot like discolored, mushy leaves and stems. Carefully check roots and trim all diseased parts. Provide dry conditions and use fungicides to treat mild cases. Propagate using healthy cuttings for severely rotted plants.
The most crucial preventative care is watering properly to keep soil completely dry between infrequent waterings. Well-draining soil and bright sunlight also help ward off rot.
With this comprehensive guide, you can confidently recognize and reverse succulent rot to keep these delightful plants thriving in your home or garden.